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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
Normal Approach and Landing

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Approaches and Landings


A normal approach and landing involves the use of
procedures for what is considered a normal situation;
that is, when engine power is available, the wind is
light or the final approach is made directly into the
wind, the final approach path has no obstacles, and the
landing surface is firm and of ample length to
gradually bring the airplane to a stop. The selected
landing point should be beyond the runway's approach
threshold but within the first one-third portion of
the runway.

The factors involved and the procedures described for
the normal approach and landing also have applications
to the other-than-normal approaches and landings
which are discussed later in this chapter. This being the
case, the principles of normal operations are explained
first and must be understood before proceeding to the
more complex operations. So that the pilot may better
understand the factors that will influence judgment and
procedures, that last part of the approach pattern and
the actual landing will be divided into five phases: the
base leg, the final approach, the roundout, the
touchdown, and the after-landing roll.

It must be remembered that the manufacturer's
recommended procedures, including airplane
configuration and airspeeds, and other information
relevant to approaches and landings in a specific make
and model airplane are contained in the FAA-approved
Airplane Flight Manual and/or Pilot's Operating
Handbook (AFM/POH) for that airplane. If any of the
information in this chapter differs from the airplane
manufacturer's recommendations as contained in
the AFM/POH, the airplane manufacturer's
recommendations take precedence.

The placement of the base leg is one of the more
important judgments made by the pilot in any landing
approach. [Figure 8-1] The pilot must accurately judge
the altitude and distance from which a gradual descent
will result in landing at the desired spot. The distance
will depend on the altitude of the base leg, the effect of
wind, and the amount of wing flaps used. When there is
a strong wind on final approach or the flaps will be
used to produce a steep angle of descent, the base leg
must be positioned closer to the approach end of the
runway than would be required with a light wind or no
flaps. Normally, the landing gear should be extended
and the before landing check completed prior
to reaching the base leg.

Base leg and final approach.
Figure 8-1. Base leg and final approach.